The 2023 temperature of 15.09 C had already been exceeded in 1926 according to both US and British graphs! e.g. NASA Global Temperature Graph (3)  1988 Graph British Met Office and CRU East Anglia .

Anomalies relative to the pre-industrial average temperature will now be used in publishing global temperatures. The global temperature we must keep below is 15.23 C, (1.50 C above the pre-industrial average of 13.73 C.) see NOAA Climate. Below are the 2023 average global temperatures, shown below that were based upon anomalies peculiar to each authority. NOAA 1.35 C at 15.08 C, NASA 1.36 C at 15.09 C. British Met Office 1.45 C at 15.18 C, CRU East Anglia 1.46 C at 15.19 C, WMO 1.45 C at 15.18 C.

NOAA Climate  NOAA link above pegs the pre-industrial average at 13.73 C. The global temperatures are now expressed with anomalies relative to the average pre-industrial temperature (baseline) as shown below they vary somewhat between authorities. I have used the NOAA version of because it is the most recently published. A previous compiled by three authorities is older and comes in at 13.70 C or 13.69 C. The dreaded temperature is (1.50 C above 13.73 C) = 15.23 C. If we used 13.69 C as the pre-industrial average it would mean the British and US authorities would be beyond the threshold.

The link below demonstrates that it is not possible to measure the temperature of the earth with thermometers because temperatures vary with elevation.. About one degree per 100 metres cooler with height above sea level.             The attachment from provides weather comparisons e.g. between Bendigo and Ballarat. The data demonstrates that it is not possible to measure the average surface temperature of the earth using thermometers. Although the two Victorian Cities are only about 100 Kms apart their elevations and temperature could not be more different. Bendigo is 213 m above sea level compared to Ballarat at degree Celsius warmer per 100 metres in summer.Bendigo is warmer than Ballarat by 4 C in Summer and by 2 C in winter.   See above link; can be used to compare any number of cities that have Airports throughout the world..

Scientists are now able to measure the temperatures of Planets in our Solar system including earth at a 15 C (59) F. The NASA and NOAA  2023 temperatures at 15.09 C and 15.08 C respectively were close to the 15 C.    

Planet Specifications.

The Earth Atmosphere Energy Balance

Planetary Fact Sheet

The above data is shown as updated but recent enough to have influenced both NASA and NOAA?

GISS-absolute-data-scale100F (2)

The above link to the 2020 NASA graph is drawn with a zero Y axis a method that should have been adopted as standard. But it does not match temperatures contained in the graphs below:

NASA Global Temperature Graph (3)

1988 Graph British Met Office and CRU East Anglia  

The 2020 NASA graph shows 2016 as the warmest year at 58.71 F (14.84 C) which is not correct.  1990 was the warmest year at 59.81 F (15.46 C) but is shown as one of the coolest. In does not agree with NASA and British Authorities that have shown temperatures of 15 C plus from 1915 through to 1995. No wonder why they have stopped using graphs and adopted the average pre-industrial as a baseline reference although it is not officially revealed.

 A number of magazines are exaggerating the anomalies such as TIME.

Time on Hottest Ever (2)

(WMO anomaly inflated for example) TIME had featured James Hansen, the pioneer of the CO2 and global warming connection, who later had doubts about his theory:

Hansen Down Plays Fossil Fuel Threat  

Where is the Warming? With stable temperatures why do we need to reduce Carbon Dioxide especially since it is vital for plant growth (e.g. crop yield) From 1915, when the global temperature was 15 degrees Celsius (59 F), the planet had warmed slightly to 15.17 C by 1973. From 15.17 C in 1973 it reached a high of 15.45 C in 1990 then cooled  to the NOAA temperature of 15.08 C in 2023.

NASA Global Temperature Graph (3)

1988 Graph British Met Office and CRU East Anglia  

NASA and British Met Office and CRU East Anglia graphs above are drawn with a broken Y axis starting at 59 F (15 C) instead of zero. It doesn’t hide the fact but screams the message that temperatures are going off the charts!!  You can compare the temperatures in NASA graph and table above with the following NYT climate reports.

95 Is Hottest Year on Record As the Global Trend Resumes


A Global Warming Resumed in 1994, Climate Data Show – The New York Times

Separate Studies Rank 1990 As World’s Warmest Year

Global Warmth In ’88 Is Found To Set a Record – The New York Times

There was a challenge to global warming on receipt of Kukla-Mathews Letter to Richard Nixon Politicians and the Media went into a frenzy at the release of the 1972 letter that warned of global cooling. Despite the fact that NASA, NOAA, CRU East Anglia and British Met Office records (above) had indicated the world had been warming since 1880?. It stated the cooling world was on track to experience extreme weather. (similar to what they predict will occur with global warming today)..“The increased frequency and amplitude of extreme weather anomalies such as those bringing floods etc”.Good reason for another layer of bureaucracy with a mandate to monitor the world’s climate and to determine executive roles and their salaries Eh? Four years later the cooling seemed to have stopped!  Cooling Stopped in 1976

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